Foundation is a deep or shallow area in the ground that is dug to give strong connectivity between the ground and the structure of the building. The foundation plays an important role in the making of the building because it gives strength to the building and made it strong.
If the foundation is not well then the building got cracks in its walls and the floor also get sink when the foundation is not strongly made. Foundation is to be done properly to prevent major accidents due to natural disasters.
In this article, we have discussed Foundation Failure and the various signs of Foundation failure, and the Types of Foundation failure under loads.
What Is Foundation Failure?
Foundation Failure is the situation in which the soil is to slide or sink due to natural disaster or any other reason which loses hold of the building.
If the foundation is not properly made then there are many chances that the floor gets sink and fall of the building which leads to major accidents and loss of lives too.
Foundation provides a strong grip from the bottom which holds the whole building and gives it strength to stand in different conditions.
Foundation failure is a major concern, have to be focused on while establishing buildings because a weak foundation never provides you the best results and increase the chance that you will lose the structure if any kind of movement in soil happens in the future.
A strong foundation is very necessary because it helps to build to stand for the long term. As you see that there are so many old monuments that are very big and are standing perfectly today also after a long period of time too, this is because the foundations of these buildings are very strongly built.
Foundation is working as the root of building as it provides grip to the structure. The good hold of the building totally depends on its foundation. Strong foundations balance the structure of the buildings and make them long-lasting.
Signs of Foundation Failure:-
Cracks in the foundation which is checked manually by seeing and analyzing the foundation. If there are some cracks in the walls or ceilings then it is possible that the foundation is failing.
Soil movements and levels of water also cause foundation problems so if any changes occur due to this reason then there is the possibility that the foundation is not proper and starts failing. If any gap is visible in walls then it’s a sign of foundation failure.
1. Cracked or Bowed Walls:-
The cracked or bowed exterior and the interior walls are signs of the failure of the foundation. If you notice any tears in the walls or cracks between the windows and the doors and the ceiling or floor as well as cracks in the drywall.
2. Wall Rotation:-
When the soil present below your structure gets saturated with water then the weight of the building pushes down the foundation which generally causes the outside edge of the foundation to sink deeper in the soil which ultimately causes the rotation of the walls.
3. Shifting Soil and Water Damage:-
The shifting of the soil and the water damage is one of the common cause of the foundation failure. The natural movement of the soil puts a immense pressure on a foundation.
4. Drooping Floors or Warped Ceilings:-
The dropping floors, walls, and the ceiling are also sign of the foundation failure which should be rectified as soon as possible.
5. Water Intrusion in the Basement:-
The intrusion of the water through the basement is also a sign of failure of the foundation. This defect should be rectified with injection grout to seal the cracks.
Causes of Foundation Failure:-
There are various Foundation failures that are as follows
If the load is not transferred properly, or we can say that if the structure is not properly made and any movement occurs in the foundation then it will fall down.
It is very necessary that partitions and frames are arranged carefully so in the case of substantial movements’ foundation will adjust itself. If the support of structure is missing in the soil then the foundation will fail.
It is necessary to test the soil first and do a proper investigation about the supporting quality of the soil so that it will be easy for a person to make a decision about choosing the type of foundation and make a better decision. If soil quality is not able to maintain the grip then the foundation will fail.
If the lateral movement is not settled properly then it causes more damage to the foundation and the pressures make the foundation fail due to lateral movement.
Pressure intensity in walls or change in pressure leads to foundation failure. If the support is not equal then the pressure transferred to the soil will not distribute properly and cause foundation failure.
If the digging is not done properly by measurement of different areas then the foundation will not make accurately and cause unbalance which is also a reason of foundation failure.
If the soil is dragged down then the foundation will sink. If there is an error in designing of foundation and structure then foundation fail occurs.
While constructing a foundation and that construction is not done properly like material used in the foundation is not as per the requirement then it leads to foundation failure.
If the water level changes then the foundation will fail.
Types of Foundation Failure Under Loads:-
There are three major types of foundation failure such as punching shear failure, One-way shear failure, and flexure failure of foundation which we discuss here.
1. Punching Shear Failure:-
Punching shear failure is the failure that occurs due to heavy load application on the small area. If a heavy load is applied to the slab then it will lead to foundation failure. The reason of failure is not visible in this, so it will become a critical failure condition.
2. One-Way Shear Failure:-
The second is a one-way shear failure, this is the failure that get inclined cracks across the beam or slab, and from the bottom of the slab, there is a slight gap also come which leads to the foundation failure.
3. Flexure Failure of the Foundation:-
The third failure we discuss is flexure failure in this failure of the foundation beam get damaged due to the heavy load on the beam. It is very necessary that the beam has greater shear strength than its flexural strength. If the beam is weak then the foundation will fail.
Types of Foundation That Undergoes Failure:
There are 5 types of foundations that we have discussed here:
1. Basement Foundation:-
A basement foundation is very expensive in nature. It is a type of foundation in which circular digging is done into the ground which is around 10 feet deep.
In the basement foundation, digging is very deeply done because there is a basement place too which has to be used by the people. If a person is planning to make a basement in the building then this foundation is the option for which he has to go for.
In basement foundation, the main thing is that it is strongly made by analyzing the whole property level and makes it as a balancing platform which gives proper balance to each and every room or corner of the building.
Basement foundation is very helpful in the structure which has to be made on slopes or downhill areas. Cement slap is settled at the bottom of the foundation and thickly covers the walls of the foundation with cement which makes it strong and gives it strength.
If the area is having risk of flood then experts do not advise going for a basement foundation.
2. Crawlspace Stem Walls:-
Crawlspace Stem Walls foundation is a type of foundation in which small walls are built on which the house is made. This is less expensive and a good option for those areas which need space.
In this type of foundation elevated space is given which also helps in proper airflow and makes the foundation dry. Crawlspace stem Walls foundation provides storage area and area for other equipment also to store there.
It gives good protection to the walls and this is the best foundation option if the earthquake comes frequently in the area. This foundation is a very good option for handling natural disasters because it is strong and full of protection.
In this foundation, if a person wants wiring or plumbing or any other work then it gives an easy way to do that and gives a high platform to the building. Results of this foundation are very good and this is cost-effective too, so people can go for this option.
There is no need to dig the full basement in this foundation, so it becomes cost-effective and also gives a quality of control, and provides a strong grip on the structure of the building.
In warm areas or areas which are having warm climatic conditions, this foundation is the best option to work there. Crawlspace stem walls foundation need timely maintenance and need to be checked that there are no cracks in walls or leakage around water pipes etc.
3. Concrete Slab Foundations:-
A concrete slab foundation is a foundation in which concrete slabs are fixed in the deep ground. This is the strong foundation that is less expensive in nature. In this foundation no crawl space is present.
Concrete slabs are fixed under the ground, are made by wires and steel rods or bars. Steel rods or bars give it more strength and pure cement is used in making slabs. Slabs are poured under the ground with the help of cement it is set around two to four feet deep.
Properties which are having concrete slab foundation do not have any weak points and no need for maintenance, so the maintenance cost is also zero, in this type of foundation there is no repair issues and this foundation is pocket-friendly too.
This foundation will not work in cold climatic conditions because cement got cracked in cold weather conditions, so experts do not advise to go for this foundation if you are living in cold climate areas.
This foundation is also not good in case of plumbing and sewage issues because the slab needs to be cut down if you have to solve issues related to sewage and plumbing.
If you are going with a concrete slab foundation then you have to do all the sewage and plumbing work before pouring the cement or cement slabs in the foundation, so the work will get easily done and the foundation also not get any damage after completion.
4. Wood Foundations:-
When we talk about wood foundations then the first thing which comes to mind is the durability of the wood. There are so many woods available that are to be used in the foundation like Cedar, Cyprus, etc.
The wood foundation was used in earlier times like in Egyptian pyramids archeologists find wooden foundations. The wooden foundation is less expensive but not used by people in modern days, but there was a time when its trend was on the boom and this was around the 1960 period.
So if we talk about the durability then it can be calculated as the time period of pyramids is about thousands of years before and in archeological surveys and research, there are wooden foundations found.
5. Pier and Beam Foundations:-
Pier and beam foundations are the foundation used in the coastal areas as there are so many risks of floods, thunder, and hurricanes, so it is important to give a strong support foundation to the building, so they can handle the force and pressure.
Also, pier and beam foundations prevent moisture and protect the home. Serious planning is required if you are making a home or building near the ocean because a strong foundation gives strength to the structure.
Long pillars are fixed in the deepest layer of the soil. Heavy pillars are used to hold the structure so that they do not sink.
It is expensive in nature because proper planning is required to make pier and beam foundation and also requires heavy equipment for the establishment, and it is a time-consuming process too. Soil analysis is required to get surety about the soil condition whether it is able to take a load or not.
In this research, we find the best options of foundation available and which foundation will be a great choice for people according to the climatic condition and help you find the less expensive option of foundation you can go for.
We had discussed the major foundation fails too and the causes of it and also try to skip the failures by doing research about it.
This article will provide you with the best option for choosing the best and also try to elaborate on different types of foundations so that you can get better knowledge and easily understand the whole perspective of foundation failure.
The foundation plays an important role in making a home or building so it is very necessary to do quality research to reduce the chances of foundation failure.
In this article, we share the best options to you so you get each & every small piece of information regarding the foundation. This will guide you to take the best option available and also help you in saving your money and time.
There are so many guides and videos that you can follow to get knowledge, in this article we concentrated all the data and try to provide you the information in the best and easy way, so you will not find it much difficult to understand the topic.
As our topic is especially concerned with foundation failure, so we tried to give you all the information about foundation failure and the various causes which lead to foundation failure.