Introduction of Retaining Wall
- Erosion in steep sloping soils creates difficulties for the planned route of construction. The use of Retaining Walls for construction in such sloping places is a suitable option.
- Retaining walls are a rigid wall-type structure. It is used to support the background at different levels.
- A retaining wall is a structure designed to hold clay on a slope, which will not retain the soil naturally due to a steep slope or vertical slope.
- Retaining walls are used to enclose the ground between two different heights. Retaining wall construction is done in terrain areas with unwanted slopes or when the landscape needs to be properly shaped. In addition, it is used by Engineers for specific purposes like roadway overpasses.
- Therefore, we have discussed different types of maintenance walls in this article.
What Is Retaining Walls?
- A wall is constructed at the edge of the excavation to retain the amount of earth or similar clay, which is designed to resist pressure on the ground side, which are called retaining walls. A retaining wall is used for a specific purpose when there is a desired change in the elevation of the ground.
- A basement wall is one type of retaining wall. In some cases, the retaining wall is made to resist the side pressures generated by the water pressure.
- Different types of retaining walls are used in different places, depending on different factors and requirements.
Uses of Retaining Wall
- A retaining wall is mainly used to prevent soil erosion. It protects your property in sloping areas.
- Heavy rains cause extensive property damage. The use of retaining walls in flooded areas can prevent flooding/erosion during heavy rains.
- If the house is located on a platform that is higher than the surrounding land, there is a risk of damage to the building due to the soil sliding slowly. Secure the building using a retaining wall.
- Beautiful and unique landscapes can be created using a Retaining Wall if your area has a natural slope.
Types of Retaining Wall
- Gravity Retaining Wall
- Cantilever Retaining Wall
- Crib Retaining Wall
- Gabion Retaining Wall
- Counter-Fort/Buttressed Retaining Wall
- Piled Retaining Wall
- Anchored Retaining Wall
- Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Retaining wall
1. Gravity Retaining Wall
- Gravity Retaining wall ensures its stability against external forces by its own weight. This type of retaining wall is mainly designed to remove the overturning effect caused by external earth pressure.
- Gravity Retaining wall is a suitable option for low height. Gravity Retaining wall can be selected for a large height for a specific purpose. Gravity Retaining walls can be made using different materials, which can be constructed using stone, bricks, mass concrete, and precast concrete blocks, etc.
2. Cantilever Retaining Wall
- The cantilever retaining wall consists of elements such as stem and base slab.
- Cantilever Retaining Wall can be made of reinforced concrete, prestress concrete, or precast concrete.
- The cantilever retaining wall is the most commonly used type. Cantilever retaining walls are mostly made of concrete ready by forming formwork on site. A precast retaining wall is used as a cantilever retaining wall.
- In this type of retaining wall, part of the base slab is arranged below the backfill material. Which is called the heel, and the other vertical part is called the toe. The construction of a cantilever retaining wall is usually very economical up to a height of 10 m.
- The construction of this type of retaining wall requires less amount of concrete than a gravity retaining wall. But in its proper condition, it is carefully designed subject to various factors.
- The design of the cantilever retaining wall includes forces such as sliding, uplift pressure, and soil bearing pressure.
3. Crib Retaining Wall
- Crib Retaining Wall can be identified as a form of Gravity Retaining Wall.
- Crib Retaining Wall is constructed by interlocking various boxes made of wood or pre-cast concrete.
- Then, the box is filled with materials such as crushed stone or other coarse aggregates. So this type of Retaining Wall provides the facility of the free drainage structure.
- Crib retaining Wall is mainly made using materials like reinforced precast and wood etc.
- This type of retaining wall provides a plan to create a beautiful landscape. This type of Retaining Wall involves various functions such as erosion control, flood prevention, and providing a green effect to your residence.
4. Gabion Retaining Wall
- This type of retaining wall is made of gabions filled with stone, which is strongly connected to the wire. Gabion walls are usually sloping rather than vertical. This type of retaining wall usually uses galvanized steel wire. PVC-coated and stainless steel wire can also be used.
- Gabion Retaining Wall can be used to control erosion due to slopes in river banks, beaches, highways, etc. Gabion walls provide a sleek look to the landscape.
5. Counter-Fort/Buttressed Retaining Wall
- This type of retaining wall is designed to be a cantilever retaining wall type. But this type of retaining wall is reinforced by counter forts behind the base slab.
- In this type of retaining wall, the distance of the counterfort is kept equal to the counter-fort height.
- In this type of retaining wall, the height of the counter-fort wall is kept at 8-12 meters.
6. Piled Retaining Wall
- Piled Retaining Wall is made by driving reinforced concrete pillars adjacent to each other into the ground.
- Piles are driven to the appropriate depth to withstand the pressure used in temporary and permanent works or in both works.
- The pile retaining wall allows digging into the ground with extreme rigidity. Which allows digging into the required depth without any disturbance in the surrounding structure or properties.
7. Anchored Retaining Wall
- This type of retaining wall is usually used when space is limited, or a thin retaining wall is required.
- For the construction of anchor retaining walls, deep cable rods or wires are deep driven into the earth. Then, the ends are filled with grout material to provide an “anchor”.
- Anchor (tieback) resists retaining wall overturning and sliding pressure.
- Anchoring retaining wall is used especially for loose soil on rocks.
- This type of retaining wall is used in the structure system for the basement.
8. Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Retaining Wall
- The design of this type of Retaining Wall includes elements like facing elements and reinforcement embedded in the backfill etc. The facing element is made using material such as concrete, segmental block or panel, or steel wire.
- The reinforcement element in this type of retaining wall may be a material such as a geosynthetic (geotextile, geogrid) or metallic (strip, grid, wire mesh). It is sometimes used to support filling material.
- This type of retaining wall is one of the most economical and commonly constructed retaining walls.
Advantages of Retaining Wall
1. Protective Structure
If the structure or house is located on a higher platform than the surrounding land, the structure of the building is at risk of slowly sliding down, which is likely to damage the house. Happens. By creating a retaining wall, you can provide security to your building.
2. Gravity Force
Retaining walls are built to resist and fight side gravity when your building is located in a sloping area. So, landslides and erosion can be avoided in such an area.
A retaining wall is mainly used to prevent soil erosion. It protects your property in sloping areas.
4. Reduce Maintenance
A retaining wall can protect your landscape area. Due to that, maintenance can be reduced in a long time.
5. Decorative Feature
Beautiful and unique landscapes can be created using a Retaining Wall if your area has a natural slop.