Introduction of Heavy Construction Equipments
Different heavy construction equipment is used in the construction industry.
Heavy construction equipment or heavy machinery is used in large projects to make the construction process easier and faster. Different types of heavy equipment are selected in a large project for different purposes. The use of heavy equipment depends on the size of the project and the economy of the project.
Heavy equipment is used in construction for both large and small purposes. Various types of construction equipment are used for building and structural construction, road construction, underwater, and other marine construction power projects, etc.
The use of construction equipment makes it easy to complete tasks like earth excavation and filling work, placement of building materials, compacting and leveling, etc.
Type of Heavy Construction Equipment
Construction equipment can be classified into 4 main sections based on purpose and use as follows:
Earth Moving Equipment
Excavators are one of the most important and widely used excavation tools in the construction industry. Their excavation can be done for general purposes except. But apart from that, it is used for many purposes like heavy lifting, demolition, river dredging, tree felling, etc.
Excavators are made of long arms and cabinets. At the end of the long arm digging bucket, the machine is operated by the operator in the cabinet.
The excavator is construction-heavy equipment. Used to dig or move the earth in a large project. The excavator is mainly composed of 2 parts: first, the powerful hand is designed with an excavator bucket. The operator controls the powerful hand inside the small cabin.
The hydraulic system is used to control the mechanical hand of the excavator machine. It uses a chain wheel system to move the excavation process.
A backhoe is a tool commonly used for multiple purposes in construction. The front part in the backhoe can be used to shift the excavation clay by the bucket. This machine can be used for loading, unloading by the front bucket.
Backhoe loaders are available in different size horsepower ratings ranging from 25 to 150. Up to 17 feet can be excavated by a standard backhoe. With an extensible dipper stick, the depth of digging by the backhoe can exceed 21 feet.
Graders are used especially for road construction. It is mainly used to level the ground surface for road construction. In this type of equipment, the horizontal blade is fixed between the front and rear wheels. The horizontal blades are carried up and down by the operating cabin.
Graders can be used for various purposes. These include leveling the ground surface before laying the asphalt, removing snow or dirt from the road, leveling the uneven soil, etc.
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A bulldozer is a type of digging tool that removes poor soil or rock layers. Which is removed by means of a large metal plate to give the soil a certain shape.
In bulldozers, a large metal plate with sharp edges is fixed at the front to move the clay. This plate is moved using a hydraulic piston.
Wheel Loaders are used at construction sites especially for loading sand, aggregate in hoppers in concrete mixer plants. In addition, loaders are used to load demolition waste, raw materials, and other materials into dumpers, trucks, etc.
Wheel loaders are widely used on construction sites. Track or crawl loaders are used in special situations when wheeled vehicles cannot reach the spot.
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6. Skid Loader
A skid loader or skid-steer loader is a small, rigid-frame type engine-driven machine. In which loading of soil by lift arm and leveling by spreading the soil over the prescribed place. So that labor is saved.
Skid-steer loaders are usually of the four-wheel type. In which the wheels can mechanically operate on each side from full efficiency.
7. Dragline Excavator
The dragline excavator use in larger depth excavations in civil engineering and surface mining. In a dragline excavator dragline bucket is suspended on a long boom with wire ropes.
Excavation can be done by a dragline excavator in larger depths like underwater excavation, construction of ports, removal of silt in reservoirs, etc.
Trenchers or trenching machines are commonly used for laying pipelines in the ground, laying cables, digging trenches for drainage purposes. There are mainly two types of trenching machines. Chain trenchers and wheel trenches.
Trenchers of various sizes are determined based on the required width of the trench, depth, and hardness of the cutting surface. The wheel trencher is made of a toothed metal wheel.
Wheel trenchers are cheaper to operate and maintain than chain-type trenchers. It can easily work in hard or soft soils, The digging chain mounted with a round metal frame looks like a giant chainsaw. This type of trencher can cut the soil into narrow and deep trenches.
Material Handling Equipment
The hydraulic system in the truck can raise the rear platform vertically at the front end so that the loading material in the truck is released by gravity which is also called tipper truck.
Tippers are used to carry bulk loads of construction and structural industries during mining and excavation operations. Which reduces the cost with high performance and long-term operation.
Dump trucks are mostly used for transporting bulk materials used in construction.
The dumper is distinguished from the dump truck configuration based on the shape. A dumper is an open 4-wheeled vehicle with an unloading load in front of the driver.
The dumper is usually diesel-powered. It is used for secondary service as a site tractor. Provides uniform distribution of weight due to comparison of tires in the dumper.
A trailer is usually a disabled vehicle with a long span that is pulled by a powered vehicle. It is commonly used for transporting materials.
People used mobile homes with limited living facilities in long trailers while traveling.
Typically, trailers are used for the transportation of materials used in construction. Trailers are used for the transport of RCC pipe, water GI pipe, heavy machinery.
12. Tower Crane
Tower cranes are used in high-rise building construction. This type of tower crane can be used to move heavy materials like pre-stressed concrete blocks, steel trusses, frames, concrete hopper, scaffolding material, etc. easily to the required height.
A crane is a type of lifting type machine in construction. The tower crane is fixed on the ground with the proper foundation. It is used to move and lift the material horizontally over the designated location at the construction site and to transport it to other locations.
13. Wheel Tractor Scrapers
Wheel tractor-scraper is a type of heavy equipment used in construction. This type of equipment is mounted on a pan/hopper for loading and carrying materials. It cuts the ground horizontally through the front cutting edge.
This type of equipment is driven by a wheel tractor vehicle at the front and a scraping arrangement for cutting clay at the rear.
The front blade of this type of equipment is lowered to the ground and moving the equipment starts digging the ground above. The excavated clay is then collected in a hopper by a conveyor belt system. When the hopper is fully filled, the hopper is unloaded at the clay dump yard.
Compactors or rollers are used in road construction to compact materials or earth surfaces. Different compactors are available for different compacting purposes as per requirement.
Smooth wheel rollers are commonly used in road construction to compact shallow layers for soil or asphalt etc.
Sheep-foot rollers are used for deep compaction purposes in special circumstances.
Pneumatic tyred rollers are used especially in bituminous road construction to compact fine gravel and asphalt layers etc.
Telehandlers are used in large building projects to lift material to a limited height. Through it the material can be lifted and transported. This type of equipment has a long telescopic boom through which the material can be sent back and forth to the right place.
16. Paving Machine
Paver or asphalt pavement is used for road construction. The Paving Machine is continuously loaded with the asphalt mixture prepared by the dump truck in a feeding bucket and the paver machine distributes the prepared asphalt mixture evenly over the road surface with compaction. Asphalt road prepared by paving machine requires roller compaction.
17. Pile Boring Equipment
Pile boring equipment is usually used for pile foundation of bridge construction. In which bore hole is prepared at the foundation place of the bridge by this type of equipment.
18. Pile Driving Equipment
Pile driving equipment is used for the construction of the pile foundation used at the construction site. This type of equipment lifts the precast pile. And takes it to the required depth in the soil in the right position.
Piling rigs, piling hammers, hammer guides, etc. are used in various types of pile driving equipment.