Important of Cement Test | Type of Cement Test

all about of cement test

Introduction of Cement Test

Various materials are used for building construction. These include basic materials like cement, sand, aggregate, brick, wood, steel etc.

It is essential that all materials used in construction perform optimally. Because the quality, efficiency and life of the entire building structure depend on the quality of the materials used in construction.

If the material used for construction fails in its desired performance So it has an adverse effect on the life and durability of the structure. Cement is the most essential building material in construction.

So in this article, we will discuss about different tests for cement. So that suitable quality cement can be used for building.

Important of Cement Test

Cement is the most essential and widely used building material. Cement is a form of various components. These components include lime, silica, alumina, etc.

Cement is produced by two types of processing. Cement acts as a strong binder with proper mixing in concrete/mortar. And works to combine the ingredients in the mixture.

Cement used in construction should have proper strength and characteristic properties. For this various tests are done on the cement to check the quality of the cement.

Cement Properties Different cement testing methods are used to know different properties like specific gravity, strength, fineness, consistency, etc. Therefore cement testing is required before use in various construction works.

Also Read : What Is Hydraulic Cement? | Hydraulic Cement Uses | Mixing of Hydraulic Cement | How to Apply Hydraulic Cement | Advantages & Disadvantages of Hydraulic Cement

Type of Cement Test

The quality of concrete is the main binder material of cement. Therefore it is necessary to check the quality of cement before constructing any building. Various tests are performed on cement for cement quality. Cement testing can be done in two main ways,

  • Field Test.
  • Laboratory Test.

A. Field Test

The colour of cement is important for cement tests on the field. The colour of the cement should be greenish-grey.

As a field test of cement, it should feel cool when you put your hand in the bag of cement.

Putting a handful of cement in a bucket full of water, the cement should float on the water for some time.

Also Read : What Is Abrasion Test? | Purpose of Abrasion Test | Apparatus Used for Abrasion Test | Procedure For Abrasion Test

B. Laboratory Test

8 types of cement tests are usually taken in the laboratory as follows.

  • Fineness of Cement Test
  • Standard Consistency Test
  • Initial and Final Setting Time Of Cement Test
  • Soundness Test of Cement
  • Heat of Hydration Test
  • Tensile Strength Test
  • Compressive Strength Test
  • Chemical Composition Test

1. Fineness of Cement Test

Fineness of Cement Test

The fineness test of cement can be determined by a sieve test or its specific area.

This test is done to check the proper grinding of cement particles.

The cement test is done by sieving the cement sample using a standard IS sieve.

Weigh a sample of 100 g of cement for sieve analysis and the sample is sieved on a standard IS sieve number 9 (90 microns). Break the air lumps of cement in this cement sample.

Apparatus for Fineness of Cement Test

  1. 90µm Is Sieve
  2. Cement
  3. Weight Balance
  4. Nylon Brush


According to the recommendations of IS, the weight of cement particles retained on the sieve of 90 microns for the fineness of cement should not exceed 10% for OPC Cement and not more than 5% for RHC Cement.

IS Code

IS 4031 (Part 1) – The fineness of cement is determined using a 90 µm IS sieve as indicated in the IS 4031 (Part 1) 1996 code.

Also Read : What Is Cinder Block? | Specification of Cinder Block | What Is a Concrete Block? | Type of Concrete Block | Difference Between Cinder Block Vs Concrete Block

2. Standard Consistency Test

Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test

Various tests of cement are done to determine the amount of water required to make a standard cement paste for use. Vicat’s Apparatus is used for this type of cement test.

Standard consistency is expressed in the percentage of water added to the weight of 300 grams of cement.

The Vicat plunger with a length of 50 mm and a diameter of 10 mm is penetrated from the top to a depth of 33-35 mm by dropping it on the sample kept in the Vicat mould.

Apparatus for Standard Consistency Test

  1. Vicat apparatus
  2. Cement
  3. Balance
  4. Gauging Trowel
  5. Stop Watch, etc.

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS: 5513-1976, IS: 4031 ( Part 4 ) – 1988.

Also Read :What Is Modulus of Rupture of Concrete? | What Is Modulus Rapture? | Standard Test | Methods of Modulus of Rupture of a Beam | Calculation of Modulus of Rupture

3. Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test

Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test

The cement forms a sticky paste when water is added to the water. Cement paste remains plasticity for a short period of time due to its properties. As time lapses, the cement paste changes into a solid mass.

The cement paste gradually assumes a state from plastic to solid-state. Which is commonly called a cement setting.

Since water is added to the cement, the time it takes for the cement to reach its full strength is divided into two parts. Initial setting time and final setting time.

The time at which the cement paste loses its plasticity by adding water to the cement is called the initial setting time. When the cement takes time to reach its full strength. This is known as the final setting time.

Apparatus of Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Test

  1. Balance
  2. Cement
  3. Vicat Apparatus
  4. Stop Watch
  5. Gauging or Mixing Trowel
  6. Glass Plate
  7. Enamel Tray

IS code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS: 4031 (Part 5) – 1988.


According to IS code, the initial setting of cement for OPC cement should not be more than 30 minutes. However, the final setting time of OPC cement should not exceed 600 minutes.

Also Read : What Is Parapet Wall? | The Need of Parapet Wall | Uses of Parapet Wall | Types of Parapet Wall | Importance Notes for Parapet Wall Construction

4. Soundness Test of Cement

Soundness Test of Cement

Its volume changes during the cement setting and hardening process. Which is known as the soundness of cement.

Soundness tests are performed to measure the presence of excess lime in the cement and magnesia and sulphate. The le chatelier tool is used for this type of cement test.

Apparatus for Soundness Test of Cement

  1. Le-Chatelier Mold
  2. Cement
  3. Glass sheets
  4. Mixing pan
  5. Trowel
  6. Weight Balance

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS: 4031-Part 3-1988.


The soundness test result is as follows for Cement Ordinary Cement, OPC Cement, Rapid, Low Heat Cement, PPC etc. The change in the volume of the cement sample in the soundness test result should not be more than 10 mm.

Also Read : What Is Varnish? | Characteristics of Good Varnish | Use of Varnish | Types of Varnish | How to Apply Varnish to Wood? | Advantages & disadvantages of Varnish

5. Heat of Hydration Test

Heat of Hydration Test

The chemical process between cement and water is generally defined as heat of hydration. Sufficient heat is generated during the hydration of the cement. Too much heat is generated in the early stages of the cement setting. The process of the heat of hydration is a long process—which over time, its rate decreases.

Low heat cement should be used for mass concrete to reduce the heat of hydration.

Apparatus for Heat of Hydration Test

  1. Calorimeter
  2. insulated wood case,
  3. vacuum jar with stopper,
  4. thermometer plus holder,
  5. vacuum jar with stopper,
  6. glass funnel,
  7. stirring paddle, and chuck.

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS 4031-1968.


For low heat cement after 7 days, the heat of hydration should not exceed 65 calories per gram. And its amount should not exceed 75 calories per gram of cement after 28 days.

Also Read : What Is Spread Footing? | Types of Spread Foundation | Design of Spread Footing

6. Tensile Strength Test

Tensile Strength Test

The tensile strength of cement indicates its ability to withstand the maximum load given on it. Cement is able to withstand the maximum stress applied when it is in its hard state without fracture.

It is necessary to test the tensile strength of cement or concrete because high rise building comes with different types of loads.

Which are extremely sensitive to tensile strength for concrete. Tensile strength is much less than the compressive strength of concrete.

Apparatus for Tensile Strength Test

  1. Testing Machine
  2. Tamping Rod
  3. Concrete Mould
  4. Trowel

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS: 456 2000.


The results of the tensile strength test of cement should be between 3-5 MPa, i.e. 300-700 psi.

Also Read : What Is Gypsum? | Types of Gypsum Products | Properties of Gypsum | Uses of Gypsum | Advantages & Disadvantages of Gypsum

7. Compressive Strength Test

Compressive Strength Test

The result is obtained by testing the concrete cube by placing it in a compressive testing machine. In which a constant load is applied evenly to the cube. When a cube fracture occurs on this load, its reading is recorded. This load is calculated using the formula for compressive strength.

For normal cement, the strength test is done after 7 days and 28 days.

For low heat cement, this type of cement is tested for 3, 7 and 28 days.

Apparatus for Compressive Strength Test

  1. Testing Machine
  2. Tamping Rod
  3. Concrete Mould
  4. Trowel

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS: 456 2000.

Also Read : What Is Dam? | Parts of Dam | Types of Dams

8. Chemical Composition Test

Chemical Composaition Test

The production of cement consists of various components. The present ingredients include lime or limestone, silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O2), magnesia (MgO), etc. Which generates heat by chemical processing with water.

Apparatus for Chemical Composition Test

Flame Photometer and ELE Flame Photometer.

IS Code

This type of cement test is performed in accordance with IS 269-1998.


For the quality of cement, the composition of its components should be as follows.

  1. Silica (SiO2) – 22%
  2. Alumina (Al2O2) – 7.5%
  3. Lime or Limestone – 62% (Highest)
  4. Magnesia (MgO) – 2.5 %
  5. Other Components – remaining 6%

Also Read : What Is Concrete Topping? | Purpose of Topping Slab | Type of Concrete Topping Slab | Advantages & Disadvantages of Topping Slab | Construction Process of Laying Concrete Topping

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top
Scroll to Top