Introduction of Culvert
Unique structures such as culverts allow water to circulate without obstruction. The culvert plays a significant part in the infrastructure. culvert Currently, you will find some places in disrepair. And some culverts will be less efficient.
Some culverts are old based on hydraulic capacity. This is because the flow capacity has increased due to changes in the surrounding terrain over time. Because of this, the use of culverts should ensure structural adequacy based on functional hydraulic performance. Such culvert-like structures need to be maintained on a regular basis.
Culverts are often placed in the same category of responsibility as bridge structures.
What Is Culvert?
A culvert is constructed to allow water to flow under the same obstruction from road, sidewalk, railroad or from one side to the other.
The culvert is usually used to remove drainage from a roadside ditch. In addition, the culvert can be used as natural drainage and cross-drain to pass water down the road at the stream crossing.
Sometimes this culvert is found at the bottom of the road; it is often empty. In addition, urban areas may have culvert-like structures, which allows vehicle or pedestrian traffic to pass through the waterway. In addition, the culvert allows enough water to pass through without any obstruction.
In the case of highways where the span length of the culvert can be about 4.5 meters to pass small traffic on it. Similarly, in the case of railway tracks, the length of the span is kept to be about 6 m.
The culvert is surrounded by land or ground. Different types of culvert include pipe culvert, box culvert and arc culvert, which is used under roadways and railways.
The design of the culvert is based on the height of the water surface and the height of the road, and other conditions corresponding to the surrounding area.
Material for Culvert
Some culverts are shaped like pipes. The culvert is made of many materials depending on the utility.
- high-density polyethylene
Concrete culverts are generally preferred in terms of strength. Concrete culverts can be reinforced or non-reinforced. In the case of the canal, the culvert is constructed on-site. Precast culverts can also be used.
Location of Culvert
The location of the culvert should be based on economy and use as needed. Simple culverts are usually provided in such a way that the provision of culverts under roadways or railways is economical. The culvert does not require a design for a separate ridge. But for heavy transport like roads, the design of the parapet is given in the culvert.
Culverts usually need to be perpendicular to the roadway, which can provide the required slope to allow maximum water level.
Also Read : What Is Dam? | Parts of Dam | Types of Dams
Types of Culvert
Types of culverts commonly used in construction are classified as follows.
1. Pipe Culvert
A pipe culvert can be done by fixing single or multiple pipes. This pipe is placed on the base of concrete. Then, fixing is done around the pipe by concrete or masonry work.
Pipe culverts can usually be made using R.C.C., cast iron, steel, etc.
Pipe for pipe culverts can be installed very easily and quickly.
If the width of the channel is greater, the culvert can be constructed using multiple pipes. Thus, they have the ability to pass well for large streams of water.
Pipe Culvert Advantages
Some of the advantages of pipe culverts are as follows,
Pipe culverts can be made using the appropriate thickness, reinforcement, and mix design as required.
Pipe culverts can be worked quickly and easily.
The pipe culvert can easily resist compressive stress and tensile stress.
The slope can be easily provided in the pipe culvert.
2. Pipe Arc Culvert
The construction of the pipe-arc culvert comes in the shape of a semi-circle.
Arch culverts are used specifically to open large waterways. This type of culvert usually provides more hydraulic gain to the fish. This type of culvert certainly provides a very artistic look.
This type of culvert can be easily installed. This type of culvert is determined by the appropriate location.
3. Arc Culvert
The arc culvert pipe resembles an arc culvert. But this type of culvert is given an artificial floor. This type of culvert can be widely used for narrow passages. This type of culvert can be constructed of concrete or steel. This type of culvert is very expensive.
4. Box Culvert
This type of culvert is built in the shape of one or more rectangles or squares and slabs at their tops.
The box culvert is usually constructed of concrete by a suitable design. In the construction of the box, culvert reinforcement is provided according to the design. This is used for water disposal in areas with heavy rainfall, which is useless in dry periods.
The box type culvert can be used as a way for animals and humans to cross a rail or road during dry periods. The sharp corners of the box culvert reduce the velocity of water flow. More than one box number can be provided in a box culvert.
The construction of the box culvert is done especially for loose soil and large span.
No separate foundation is required for the box culvert. So it’s economically useful. Box Type culvert can be used for 3 m span and 6 m span.
5. Bridge Culvert
Bridge culverts can be used as bridges and culverts. This culvert can be used for multipurpose purposes.
A bridge culvert is used for canals or rivers, which can usually be used as a road bridge for vehicles.
A foundation is made for this type of culvert. A pavement surface has been laid for the road above the bridge culvert. This type of culvert is rectangular in shape.
6. Metal Box Culvert
Metal box type culverts can be used as an economical alternative to bridges. This type of culvert is fixed using a standard structural plate.
Installation of this type of culvert is very easy. The construction of this type of culvert can be done quickly. This type of culvert can last a long time.
Advantages of Culverts
- The culvert prevents erosion of the soil.
- The desired strength can be achieved by proper design for the culvert.
- The type of culvert can be used as per the requirement of the culvert.
- The installation of the culvert can be done very easily and quickly.
- The culvert can be made at a low cost.
- The culvert is suitable for water disposal during heavy rains.
- Water can be used for farming/engineering purposes.