Introduction of Fire Escape Staircase
It has become a part of fire safety for all new constructions in urban areas. Now the companies in the market work closely with the production of fire exit ladders with the expectation of the customers.
Fire escape stair is considered very important for fire safety for new constructions in urban areas. Fire exit stairs are provided in all areas like fabricators schools, hotels, leisure centers, etc.
Fire escape stairs will play an important role in terms of safety in multi-story buildings. Fire escape stairs are mostly made with standard materials that match the strong, durable, architectural style.
In this article, I am introducing you to Fire Escape Stairs, Fire Escape Stair Requirements, etc.
What Is Fire Escape Staircase?
A fire Escape staircase is a special type of emergency ladder. Fire Escape staircase is usually made to exit the building in an emergency. A fire Escape staircase is a technique to get people out of a building in the event of a fire or other emergency.
The design of stair structures should be very carefully planned and its location should be in the right place. This type of staircase is usually mounted outside the building but the fire escape stair is free from the main areas of the building.
A number of horizontal platforms have been placed in the fire exit stairs. Which is housed in each building along with the stairs.
The platform and stairs are usually made of open steel gratings. So used to prevent the build-ups of ice, snow, and leaves. Buildings with a height of 15m or more should have at least two stairs.
Railings are usually installed at each level. Fire exit stairs are used only for emergencies. The railing is usually met with the same standards as the railing in other perspectives.
Fire escape ladders are fixed from top to ground level. A fire exit door-like structure is provided to exit from inside the building.
In most cases, the only exit window for fire escape was provided. Now according to the new fire safety fire alarms are now fixed in the fire escape door. So it can be used for fire protection. And used to prevent unauthorized entry.
Some buildings have built fire escapes before the advent of electronic fire alarms. So fire escape in older buildings often needs to be rearranged with alarms.
Types of Fire Escaping Stairs
The types of fire escape are classified as follows
- Dropdown Staircase.
- Counterbalanced Staircase.
- Gooseneck Staircase.
1. Dropdown Staircase
- Fire escape drop-down ladders are primarily used as a last resort for fire escape. Which is used as a typical fire escape for medium-growth buildings in urban areas.
- In this type of stair, a vertical sliding ladder is placed at the bottom of the series of flights of the ladder. Which is placed at the location of escape in case of any emergency. Which are connected by direct access balconies
- The drop-down staircase is used as a cheap alternative when there is a shortage of land. It is also a good way to keep land space free and prevent unwanted intrusion.
- This type of stair comes with low maintenance costs. Which does not need to be painted every year.
- This type of ladder can be easily installed as the material is lightweight.
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2. Counterbalanced Staircase
- The path of the counterbalanced ladder is prepared by a common method. Which is used to protect the occupants of the building from fire.
- This type of ladder requires a platform for each floor. The staircase between the floors is connected to the balconies. The path of the counterbalanced staircase is connected by a pivot to the bottom of the balcony with a lower platform along the shortest part of the staircase. The counterweights thus remain attached to the wire extension of the stairs above the pivot.
- When it is used, the ladder goes down due to the person’s own weight. The ladder will remain in the following normal position until the last person leaves.
- If the path of the stairs does not fall in the following position then in such a situation the path of the stairs can injure the last person descending.
- The counterweight is attached to a cable and this cable rests on the pulley which is connected to the wall.
3. Gooseneck Staircase
Exterior Fire Escape Stairs Code
The design and dimensions of the fire escape staircase should be in accordance with the rules and regulations for fire safety of Indian standard buildings.
This code describes the requirements of a fire escape staircase and the dimensions of a fire ladder. The material to be used in the exit passages should be made of fire-resistant material. This type of ladder should not have any kind of obstruction.
Fire Stair Dimensions
The fire escape stairs should have the following requirements,
- The length of the fire ladder should not be less than 900mm.
- The width of this type of ladder should be kept at least 75cm.
- Fire escape stairs should have railings of 1-meter height.
- The maximum height of the fire escape stair riser is kept at 190mm.
Fire Escape Staircase Regulations
The various rules of fire escape stairs are as follows,
- The road to the fire escape staircase should be free of obstructions.
- There should be a maximum of 15 stair risers per direct flight of stairs. The minimum width of the fire ladder is 1250 mm and the walking width is 250 mm.
- The door used for fire escape should be made of fire-resistant material.
- Fire escape stairs should have railings of 1-meter height.
- The fire escape ladder should be directly attached to the ground.
- Buildings with a height of 15m or more should have at least two stairs.
- The fire escape ladder should be outside a building.
- This type of staircase should be free from the main part of the building.
- The width of the door in the fire escape ladder should not be less than 1 meter and its height should not be less than 2 meters.
- There should be adequate air circulation in the stair passage.
- The height of the headroom should not be less than 2.2 m in the passage under the stairs and under the landing of the stairs.
- Spiral stairs should not be used in buildings with a height of more than 9 m.